Guide to the Universe

  • Desciption of the solar system:

the sun together with all the planets and other bodies that revolve around it.

  • Our place in the solar system:

The third to the sun and one planet from the asteriod belt

  • A description of the types of galaxies:

A spiral galaxy that has a barlike bulge in the middle, extending between the core and the spiral arms.close to a third of spiral galaxies have this straight bar of stars, gas, and dust streching out from the nucleus. As with other spiral galaxies, barred spiral galaxies rotate, and the dust and gas in the arms form new stars. Astronomerst think that some elliptical galaxies holding hints of a bar and spiral might once have been barred spiral galaxies.

  • Detailed information about the Milky Way

The milky way system is a spiral galaxy made of over 400 billion stars, plus gas and dust arranged into three general components. The Galaxy has this look because it is a disk-shaped structure that is being viewed from inside. The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000–120,000 light-years in length containing 200–400 billion stars. The Galaxy is thought to contain at least as many planets, 10 billion of which could be located in the habitable zone of their parent star. Depending on its structure the whole Galaxy has a rotational rate of once every 15 to 50 million years. The Galaxy is also moving at a velocity of 552 to 630 km per second,based on the relative frame of reference. It is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, nearly as old as the Universe. The Milky Way is part of the local group of galaxies.

  • Our location in the Milky Way

Earth is located within the Galactic plane of this disk-shaped milky way, around two thirds of the way out from the center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion-Cygnus Arm.

  • Our galaxy’s location in the universe

The universe has know center or border.


 The Milky Way                                                                        Barred Spiral Galaxy





The formation of the Solar System description.

There are so many mysteries that man-kind  has yet to unraveled, from are substantial universe all the way to the smallest insect. The main topic on this post is about a mystery of the universe that is very important to know, but many don’t know the answer yet… The formation of the SOLAR SYSTEM! The solar system occured over an immensly long period of time(approximately 4.5 billion years) , by a chain reaction of devastating events.

It all started while everything is still in the empty reaches of space. When suddenly a nearby supernova disturbes a nebula(giant molecular cloud).At that moment a fraction of the nebula started to gravitationally collapse on itself. Eventally the gigantic cloud of mysterious gas and dust gently floating in space began to rapidly inplode on itself. Most of the gas collected in the center to form a gaseous sphere which would eventally become the fiery fierce inferno known today as the sun. As more gas got inhaled fearociously by the intense gravity, friction, and pressure it would be the cause of the soon to be sun; but before that it made a different star called a protostar to become hot and to glow.

The nebula continued to contract, and conservation of angular momentum made it react where it would spin super fast. It got flattened in to a protoplanetary disk, with the intensivly hot, dense protostar in the very center. In several million years, the eight magnificent planets formed by accretion from the amazing disk. Another way of saying things is that the protoplanetary got pulled in to several thick clumps of dust and gas. The clumps ended up fusing together and growing larger and larger, turning into planetesimals. The planetesimals further coalesced to eventually form planets,with the comets and asteriods as the left over material. Gravitational interaction caused the planets to group into district regions such as the Asteriod and the Kuiper Belt.

Only metals and silicates could withstand the warm inner solar system since they had high boiling points, and this would make up th rock planets. Metallic elements comprised of a teeny-tiny segment of the solar nebula, since that was true the inner planets couldn’t grow very large. It was a theory that there was over 100 miniture protoplanets in the inner solar system, but at one point they collided and merged to create the four inner planets we know today. The gas giants formed farther away, where icy compound could keep solid. Gas and ice was more plentiful in the protoplanetary disk, so it let those planets become to a massive size and have big atmospheres.

During all this, the baby form of the sun became hotter,and Once the temperature and pressure at the core was high enough, thermofusion of hydrogen began. At that point the sun became a full fledged star. The solar wind from the star swept away the left over dust and gas ending the growth of the planets. This whole process of the formation of the solar system took about 4.5 billion.That was the whole formation of the solar system.

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Air pressure

Air pressure affects living and inanimate in many strange ways. For an example of air pressure as it gets higher is when you go in a airplane and your ears pop. For planes they always makes decisions on how high to be because if they go to high they will have big problems. Hot air balloons  also has to wurried about air pressure on their flights.

My First Semester Top 20 List

  • There are 3 types of rocks and they all have different ways  to form.
  • Fossil fuels are actaully made from fossils.
  • the continents move because of the asthenosphere.
  • There are 6 layers of the earth instead of just 4.
  • Water can break rocks by freezing and thawing
  • Acid rain comes down without hurting us.
  • Acid rain kills trees.
  • The nickname for physical weathering is mechanical weathering.
  • Chemical weathering can make caves and then stalactites and/or stalagmites form.
  • The continents use to be one big super continent callen pangea.
  • The lithosphere is seperated into several plates.
  • The majority of the major plates are named after the continent it’s under.
  • Soil is made up of minerals, air, water, rock particles, and decayed organic material.
  • Groundwater is water from the ground.
  • The inner core is solid.
  • Deposition is the dropping off of sediment.
  • There are different layers to soil.
  • Earthquakes are likely when a plate subducts.
  •   The stress force for transform boundaries are shearing
  • convergent boundaries go apart.

The topics I think should be included:challenge 10

There are many topics that the teacher has made up for us to do. Now it is my turn to have an opinion in what topics we will do post on. The topic I think is a great one is achievements. To know people’s achievements is a great way to get to know someone better.It tell how they over came their challenges and got rewarded for it. This is my number one suggestion for a topic.

 Another topic is how much do you like your first year in middle school and what has been good memories. That would be a subject that helps to know  if their having a good or bad year, and also what things they have experienced since 6th grade. Those were the only two subject I think we should do so that all for now.


There have been thing I like or I think it is pretty good, but this is about my very favorite things, places, person, ect.. All the thing I’m going to tell are 100% true favorites. As a warning you might think some of this stuff is weird.

The first favorite is a color and it is blue, I feel blue is like a cool color that makes me feel calm.Pancakes are my favorite food. Even though it seems pretty odd to have pancakes as a favorite, there are ways I can get them all the time. The next favorite is a cruise, cruises are my favorite places toImage Detail go on vacations. My favorite cousins is Evan, because we have so many good memories to remember.

Now that we have covered the basic favorites let me tell you about the more unusual favorites. My favorite type of wild animal is a cheetah, because it’s very fast, agile, and succesful predator. Out of all the numbers my favorite is five. Since we’re on the topic of numbers, math is my favorite subject in school.

There are serveral more favorites I could list, but for now I’ll stop with the list.Also if you have anything in common with me you can make a comment.

Family memories

The times I have with are fun, amazing and funny, this time I’m going to write about all the wonderful times we have. Ever since I was a baby I’ve had happy moments in my life. The very first birthday I remember is when I was Turnning four years old. On that day I was with most of my family, I had the party at my great grandmother’s house.

Another special holiday was the forth of july when we shoot literally around 60 fireworks. One of the fireworks accidently tipped over and blow up every where. Once on a vacation my cousins and I had gone to the mountains during the winter to ski/snowboard. One of my favorite occasion was when my cousins, my aunt, my grandparents, and my dad all went on a cruise together with me to see the Bahamas.

Seismic Waves

Seismic waves help determen what the earth is made of. The S waves are only able  to go through liquids. P waves can go through both solids and liquids. When they run P and S waves through the earths interior  the S waves went through the crust,lithosphere,mantle,asthenosphere. The P waves can go through every layer of the earth though.

How do we know what the Earth’s interior structure is like when we can’t see it?

P and S waves are the answer to the title question and the reason is because the P waves can go through both solids and liquids, but the S wave only goes through solids. base on the P and S waves that go through the earth we know that the earth is made up of solids and liquids. As the liquid core increases the size of the shadow zone gets bigger.